4Ps of marketing is no longer an unfamiliar concept for businesses. The 4Ps stand for Product, Price, Place, and Promotions utilized when marketing products and services. This concept has been increasingly used when businesses create marketing strategies and plans to market to an audience segmentation effectively.

Though there are different marketing mixes, this 4P-of-marketing approach is the most foundational for businesses to build a great marketing plan. Learn more what the 4Ps of marketing are and how this strategy helps you on the following marketing endeavor or the significance of 4Ps of marketing.

4Ps are one of the marketing mixes

What are 4Ps of Marketing?

As mentioned above, the 4Ps of marketing are product, price, place, and promotion. Check out the following sections to better understand about these elements.

#1. Product

Product in the 4Ps of marketing is a tangible product or service that a business provides in the market. There are several issues to consider when making the strategy of product in 4Ps of marketing

products in 4p

Products in 4P

Brand Strategy

The company's product names will affect the level of customer retention and motivation to buy.

Name products differently: Each product should be named differently. Accordingly, corporate reputation is not tied to the product and limits the brand risk between products.

However, each product that comes with a new brand needs businesses to make efforts and spend more money for consumers to recognize and trust the product.

For example, Tan Hiep Phat Company has launched many types of products with different names such as Tra Xanh Khong Do, Number 1, Dr. Thanh, etc.

Common names for all products: Naming helps customers remember product groups easily. Especially if the previous product of the popular product line is popular, the next new product will easily be welcomed because the customer already has a good impression of the product.

For example, Philips has a common name for all its product lines from TVs, irons, light bulbs, and more.

Naming by product line: This method helps businesses conveniently promote products of the same line. However, when brand issues occur, the impact will certainly apply to the entire product line.

For example, P/S has a line of oral care products, Pond's skin care line.

marketing 4p

Product naming also affects the brand

Combination of product name and business brand: This naming method both uses the prestige of the business's brand and creates an impression for the product. In particular, when there is any problem with the product brand, the level of influence is also less.

For example, OPPO smartphone brand has named each of its products according to the formula OPPO + Smartphone name.

Product Aggregation Strategy

In order to have the right 4P marketing strategy for products, businesses need to understand the nature of their products and services. It is best to still tabulate the product feature set. Required features of the product portfolio:

Width: this is the information sheet that represents the product line. Usually the product line will have products that are related or share some criteria such as functions, features/constructions, and target customers.

For example, a cosmetic company offers product lines for acne-prone skin, dry skin, sensitive skin, and more.

  • Depth: represents the sum total of the other properties of the product line (color, size, etc.). For example, products for dry skin include full-size products and products for travel purposes.
  • Length: total product
  • Consistency for products: This is a factor that shows the relationship between products in terms of production technology, business area and distribution system.

A new business can only deal in one product, but to grow, the business will have to expand its product portfolio to have a better risk allocation.

The decisive factors for the expansion of the enterprise's product portfolio include:

  • Target customers: When performing any product portfolio expansion, businesses need to evaluate the customer audience to have the right product development direction.
  • Create depth of product lines: Develop different types of products in the same product line.
  • Extend product lines: This means that businesses need to grow the number of products included in the lines to help the product line become more complete.
  • Improve product line uniformity: Enterprises can rely on corporate reputation, capacity and financial resources to expand business into completely new fields.

Product Line Strategy

A. Expansion Of Product Lines

One of the popular strategies developed by brands today is to launch high-end product lines first and then expand to lower product segments.

On the contrary, there are also some businesses that launch products in the low-end segment with rapid growth in order to increase market share quickly after entering the market.

Next, the enterprise implements additional products with more advanced features, in order to increase profits and develop the business. Some businesses combine product development in both directions: up and down, aiming to expand their presence throughout the market.

Some businesses conduct the expansion of product lines. Developing new products for the product line in order to increase profits will help consumers have more choices and increase competition for businesses.

Product Line Restrictions

Besides adding new products to the product line, businesses need to remove products with weak competition and not attract customers to focus resources on other products more effectively.

#2. Price

The second P represents the cost of the product in the 4Ps of marketing. Based on supply and demand, profits and costs, businesses can implement appropriate pricing strategies.

Valuation Strategy

  • High Pricing: The product will therefore be offered at a premium above the average market price. This strategy is suitable for high-end target customers. Businesses need to focus on high-quality, unique products. In addition, factors such as communication, store location, and display also represent a premium element for the product line.
  • Low Pricing: The opposite of the above strategy is the strategy of setting a low price for the product relative to the market or to the competition. This strategy takes advantage of production capacity, cutting costs to the maximum. The customer segment for this product is often vulnerable when other products are cheaper, without much consideration of product quality.

Product Set Strategy

  • Product line pricing strategy: Different pricing for items on the same product line helps to present different quality and value to customer psychology. The product line price scale is determined based on differences in size, brand and features, thereby targeting different target markets.
  • Core and complementary pricing strategies: Complementary product pricing must accompany the main product. The main product will often have a low price because the profit is mainly due to the high-priced complementary product.

#3. Place

Another equally important step in the 4Ps of marketing is Place which can be understood as distribution. This element provides rotation, bringing products to consumers quickly. In addition, the policy of distribution intermediaries also affects corporate profits.

4p marketing

Important distribution channel with 4P

Whether the product is consumed or not depends largely on factors such as producer, customer/consumer and distribution intermediaries. The place in 4ps of marketing example is utilizing retail outlets, wholesale centers, online platforms or physical stores as the places for trade promotions and product placement.

#4. Promotion

The last P in the 4P model in marketing belongs to commercial marketing, playing an equally important role as the above Ps. Promotion helps promote buying and selling faster and stronger, giving businesses a position in the market.

Promotion Mix

Enterprises in stages decide on a strategy to combine promotions, in order to achieve sales and communication purposes.

Implement promotional strategies in marketing

Implement promotional strategies in marketing

Commonly used marketing tools include:

  • Advertising: Direct solicitations for certain behaviors such as purchases, subscriptions, and downloads.
  • Promotion: stimulates consumers to buy and become attached to the brand.
  • Personal selling/offering: The distinguishing feature of personal selling/selling is the individuality of the individual, through the creation of a direct relationship between the sales representative and the customer.
  • PR: building a good image of the brand and products through real stories, helping to connect the brand with customers.
  • Direct marketing: Another marketing method is to use a direct way to reach customers, allowing them to respond (suggestions, replies to mail, orders).

6 Steps to Developing the 4Ps in the Marketing Mix

To develop an optimal marketing 4P strategy, each business needs to prepare specific steps so that it can effectively market its products and services to consumers.

See more: Marketing mix strategy: The leading solution in the 4.0 era

Step 1: Determine the USP

Every business needs to specify from the very beginning the unique selling points of its products and services. This is very helpful in having a solid foundation to reach out to your customers.



Step 2: Define Target Customer Segment

Businesses want to make offers with targeted customer insights. Accordingly, the marketing of services and products is also easier for businesses.

Some questions to help businesses identify their target customers well include:

  • Who are your product and service buyers?
  • What is the difficulty?
  • What customers want for products from your business?

See more: Market segmentation of Vinamilk

Step 3: Research your Competitors

One of the next steps in building a 4P strategy in marketing is to research competitors to get the necessary information, help businesses objectively assess and match the actual needs of customers.

Research your opponent

Research your opponent

Step 4: Evaluate Distribution Channels

Distribution channel is considered a place to help marketers research the channels through which businesses can reach target customers.

From there, businesses can consider better in choosing the form of marketing and choosing the appropriate distribution channel.

Step 5: Building & Developing Communication Channels

When setting reasonable prices for products, as well as identifying potential customer segments for businesses, you can implement 4P strategies in reasonable marketing.

The selected communication methods need to ensure the benefits and features of the product & service. In addition, it is necessary to attract a large number of customers to buy enterprise products.

Step 6: Overall Check

After going through the steps in setting up a 4P strategy, you need to identify the four salient components of your products & services: product, price, location, and effective marketing. match or not.

The linkage between the main factors is the decisive factor for the success of the 4Ps of marketing.

Analysis of Coca-Cola's 4P Of Marketing Strategy

A typical case study in successfully applying the 4Ps of marketing is Coca Cola. The brand has implemented its marketing strategy through 4 factors as follows:

Coca Cola's 4P strategy

Coca Cola's 4P strategy

1. Product 

Research data from Nielsen has shown that Coca-Cola has been the leading brand in the market for bottled water and soft drinks since 2020.

From the main product of carbonated drinks, the brand has developed its product portfolio to be more diverse with many different models, flavors and colors such as Sprite, Fanta, etc. These brands are widely developed in most countries around the world.

This beverage brand also constantly creates new products such as Samurai - energy drink, Joy - bottled water, to meet the tastes and preferences of Vietnamese consumers.

2. Price

Price is also focused on Coca Cola because this is one of the decisive factors to the final purchase behavior of consumers, as well as affecting the profit of the business.

Unreasonable price adjustments can affect the number of loyal customers, as well as the net profit of the business.

Thanks to a diverse product portfolio, the Coca Cola brand has implemented a policy of adjusting prices in accordance with the market, suitable for many different audiences.

You may not know, but Coca Cola all implement completely different pricing strategies for each of its different product lines. The factor that has the biggest influence on the brand's pricing strategy is based on research with competitor Pepsi.

The beverage and bottled water market is often quite monopolistic, so brands participating in this industry will often enter into price agreements to be able to balance the prices of products listed in the market.

Coca-Cola products are often defined based on consumers' perceptions of value rather than focusing on costs from sellers.

3. Place

In the world, Coca Cola is one of the favorite brands. The system of distributors of the brand is based on the distribution model of FMCG (fast-moving consumer goods).

Coca Cola's effective distribution network has almost completely conquered the existing market, including both medium and small points of sale.

A prime example of the success of this other award-winning brand is the case in the Indian market, where Coke is a popular name in the countryside of this country thanks to its wide distribution strategy, beating the brands. like Bovonto and Kalimark.

4. Promotion

Coca Cola especially focuses on promotion strategy in 4Ps of marketing, which determines the success of the brand in the market. Coca has triggered demand by combining consumer behavior and lifestyle.

It is easy to see and recognize Coca Cola advertising based on the individuality of the consumer, especially on special occasions when the brand wants to promote good and good messages throughout the market.

In addition, one of Coca's successful strategies is the use of CSR (social responsibility) to hit consumers' thoughts and feelings.

4Ps of Marketing Cons & S.A.V.E Model Introduction

In fact, not all businesses are successful in implementing the 4P model in marketing. Besides, this model has also seen many changes since the 4P was introduced in the 1960s. It is these existing changes that make many people wonder if this model is outdated.

A study conducted by Harvard Business Review spanning 5 years with the participation of more than 500 levels of management and guests, representing different industries in the B2B market to evaluate the 4P model has shown.

Key Weaknesses In The 4Ps

The 4Ps are overly focused on technology, quality, and product features. Marketers who focus on these factors argue that the problem is not about competitive advantage, only about the cost of entering the market. 

Meanwhile, the management cannot stress the necessity of maximal solutions. The 4Ps of marketing cost marketers too much time to highlight real advantages.

The disadvantages of the 4P model led to the need for replacements, so the S.A.V.E model was born.

4P Alternative Model – S.A.V.E

This model represents Solve (replacing Product), Access (replacing Place), Value (replacing Price), and Education (replacing Promotion).

1. Solve

In customer communication, businesses do not focus too much on the features or technology behind the line of products and services they provide.

Research experts said that customers today do not focus much on technical background, but mainly focus on whether products and services of enterprises solve customer problems.

2. Access

In the digital age, the distribution model of traditional sales methods is gradually becoming irrelevant. The advent of digital solutions such as cloud computing software, laptops, and computers has helped employees do business everywhere.

Therefore, the focus is still on the speed of access and response to customer needs.

Access in S.A.V.E

Access in S.A.V.E

3. Value

Price is considered as a determining factor in consumer buying behavior. However, today's customers are increasingly making the right and informed buying decisions thanks to the correct appreciation of the specific values ​​​​that the products and services of the business bring.

4. Education

Modern customers tend to try and research products before making a purchase decision.

You therefore need to build trust in your customers by providing articles, videos and other materials to help them understand the solutions, problems and industries your business offers.


Above is all the information about the 4Ps of marketing. Now you know What are the 4Ps? and the steps to build the ideal 4P model. In addition to 4Ps, you can consider the S.A.V.E model - an alternative strategy for 4Ps. Thank you for reading!


FieldCheck is a KPI management software that helps businesses manage in-store activities such as job monitoring, quality control, product display, and time attendance.

The application is specially developed to optimize field work and field trips of retail chains. You can easily use the application to manage KPIs, support PG, store employees to do their jobs.